Indian Ancient History

August 27, 2018
Category: General Study

Indian Ancient History

Pre historic Ages

Prehistoric period is divided into three sections.

  • Stone age
  • Bronze age
  • Iron age

Stone Age

Stone age is divided into three periods.

  • Paleolithic age
  • Mesolithic age
  • Neolithic age

Paleolithic age

In starting of paleolithic age the tools where usually made of hard rock.

In middle period of paleolithic age a bit change account in the shape of tools made of stones are bones.

At last of this period human lives as Nomadic hunter gatherers.

Mesolithic age

It ended with the introduction of agriculture.

Neolithic age

It was an age of polished tool culture. Tool making became an important profession and a variety of polished tools were manufactured.

They learnt the art of poetry and their parts where will made and decorated with paintings.

They discovered the art of producing fire by friction of stones.

the wheel was also and important discovery of this age.

Bronze Age

It begin with the development of Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BC to 1300 BC.

Pupil started using weapons and agriculture tools made of bronze,Copper and Tin.

It had opened the trade network of Mesopotamian Civilization to reach out in various directions.

Iron Age

Peopil started using weapons and tool made by iron and marked by other prominent changes in the society such as agriculture practices, religious beliefs.

The age began in the 6th century BCE in the Northern Europe and 8th century BCE in Central Europe.

Indus Valley Civilization

  • It was most ancient urban Civilization in the world.
  • Which was flourished on the bank of Indus river during bronze age. 

The important cities under the civilization where given below.

Names of Sites Year of Excavation Excavators Region
Harappa 1921 Daya Ram Sahani Montgomery district of Punjab (Now in Pakistan)
Mohenjodaro 1922 R.D. Banarjee Larkana District of Sind on the right bank of Indus
Chanhu-daro 1931 N. Gopal Majumdar Situated in Sind on the bank of Indus
Kalibangan 1953 A. Ghosh situated in Gujarat on the bank of Ganga
Lothal 1953 S.R.Rao situated in Gujarat on bhogavo river near Gulf of Cambay
Banwali 1974 R.S.Bhist situated in Hisar district of Haryana
Amri 1935 N.G.Majumdar situated in sind on the bank of Indus
Dholavira 1985-90 RS Bisht situated in Gujarat in Rann of Kutch
Rangpur 1953 MS Vats, BB Lal and SR Rao situated on the bank of Mahara in Gujarat
Ropar 1953 Y.D. Sharma situated in Punjab of the banks of Sutlej
Alamgirpur 1958 Y.D. Sharma situated on Hindon in Ghaziabad

Vedic Period (1500-500 BCE)

  • Aryans where the people who spoke Indoeuropean language Invincible belonging to Central Asia migrated to India.
  • According to the oldest Vedic literature the Aryan King came into conflict with the dasha and the dashayus.
  • two priest who plays an important role during this time where Atharvaveda and Vishwamitra.
  • The Pupil of the Vedic period where the east Vedic literature shows the existence of god and some Invincible power.
  • Indra (Rain God) was important as he played role of a warlord.
  • Agni (God of Fire) was devoted 200 hymns.
  • The 4 Vedas (Rigved Samved Yajurved Atharvaveda) is most famous in this period.

Jainism

  • Mahavir was born in kundagram village of Bihar
  • At the age of 30 he gave up his crown and became an ascetic. 

he attend the supreme knowledge after 13th year of his asceticism outside the town of jimbhikgram. After this, he was called as Jain or Jitendriya.

he believed that the universe was the product of nature – the outcome of cause and effect Karma and transmigration of the soul. Shaolin external and bone and Ribbon ultimate aim of the Jeev should be getting rid of the birth cycle. He laid great stress on equality. 

Jains devotees were categorised as Tirthankar, arhat, Bhattacharya Upadhyaya, Sadhu

Buddhism

Buddhism

Gautam Budh was the founder of Buddhism. He was a prince in Kingdom of Kapil Vastu in 563 B.C. At the age of 29 he left his home in search of enlightenment which he Upadhyaya at the age of 35 at Bodhgaya under the peepal tree.

He delivered his first Sermon at Sarnath, Banaras.
he passed away at the age of 80.

He recommended an eightfold path which included
right observation, right determination, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right exercise, right memory and right meditation.

Mahajanpads

During the age of Buddha full of Northern territory especially north of Indian was divided into 16 States called sodash mahajanpads either Monica or Republican in character.

S.N. Mahajanpads Capitals Present place
1 Gandhara Taxila  a part of Afghanistan
2  Kamboja Rajauri Parts of Kashmir and Afghanistan
3 Asmaka Potana Godavari Valley
4 Vatsa Kausambi Allahabad
5 Avanti Ujjain Malwa and a part of M.P.
6 Surasena Mathura Mathura in UP
7 Chedi Suktimati Bundelkhand in MP
8 Malla Kushinara, Pawa Eastern UP
9 Kurus Hastinapur/Indraprastha Delhi and Meerut
10 Matasya Virat Nagari Jaipur and Alwar
11 Vajjis Vaishali North bihar
12 Anga Champa  Bhagalpur in Bihar
13 Kashi Banaras banaras
14 Kosala Shravasti Oudh in UP
15 Magadh Rajgir  Patna and Gaya in Bihar
16 Panchala kampilya Rohilkhand in UP

Magadh Empire

Magadh roughly represents the present Patna and Gaya district of Bihar.
(Ganga in the north zone in the West Vindhya in the south Champa in the East)

King bimbisara was the founder of this Empire.

Three dynasties ruled over Magadha

  • Haryanka dynasty
  • Shishunaga Dynasty
  • Nanda dynasty

Haryanka Dynasty

  • Bimbisar was the first ruler and founder of haryanka dynasty
  • he was contemporary to Buddha
  • He was killed and succeeded by his son Ajatsatru.
  • He shifted his capital from the Rajgir to Patliputra.
  • Ajatsatru was killed by his son Udayin.

Shishunaga dynasty

  • The last Haryanka ruler, Nagadashaka killed by his courtier shishunaga in 430BC.
  • Therefore Shishunaga was the founder of shishunaga dynasty. Who was succeeded by his son kalashoka.
  • The last ruler of shishunaga dynasty was Nandi Vardhan.

Nanda Dynasty

Mahapadma Nanda established the Nanda dynasty they had a huge Army of two lakh infantry 60000 cavalry and 2000 War 4 and 6000 war elephants.

Dhanananda was the last ruler of this dynasty he was contemporary of Alexander who invaded India in 326 BC during his region.

Mauryan Empire (320-185 BC)

Chandragupta Maurya 322 BC – 298 BC
Bindusar  298 BC- 272 BC
Ashok  274 BC – 232 BC
Dashrath  232 BC – 224 BC
samprati  224 BC – 215BC
Shizuka 215 BC – 202 BC
jayavarman  202 BC – 195 BC
Satadhanvan  195 BC – 187 BC
Brihdatha 187 BC – 185 BC
  • Chandragupta Maurya defeated Dhananand with the help of Chanakya.
  • Megasthenes was the Ambassador sent by Seleucus.
  • Bindusar was the next successor of the modern Empire.
  • Ashok was the son of Bindusara who fought the Battle of Kalinga in 261 BC.
  • Last Maurya King was Brahdhrath (killed by his general Pushyamitra).
  • Pushyamitra founded sunga dynasty.

Sunga Dynasty

Rulers
Pushyamitra Sunga
Agnimitra
Vasujyeshtha
Vasumitra
Andhraka
Pulindaka
Ghosha
Vajramitra
Bhaga Bhadra
Devabhuti

Pushpa mitra Singh was the Senapati of last king of modern Empire Brihdhrat.

He killed Brihadratha and founded the sunga dynasty in 185 BC. They were succeeded by Kanwa dynasty.

Vasudev Kanwa was the founder of Kanwa dynasty. He was a Brahmin and follower of Lord Vishnu.

After this, in the ancient history, we also read the following
Satavahana dynasty( 167-196 AD)
Kushan dynasty (30-375 AD)
Gupta Empire (320- 550 AD)
Harshavardhana (606 -647 AD)
the Pala Empire (750 – 1174 BC)
southern Kingdom
Chola dynasty

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